Saturday, April 21, 2012

The Life of Muhammad (by Dr Muhammad Husein Haykal)

The following are the summary of the biography of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w., taken from the book "The Life of Muhammad" by Dr. Muhamad Husein Haykal.
Personally, upon completion of the book, I found that the way the biography was written clearly depicts true understanding, especially from the historians' point of view, regarding the actual accounts of the Prophet's life.
A truly wonderful reading experience. Fully recommended.

The Life of Muhammad

1. Arabia Before Islam

            The cradde of human civilization
            The Mediterranean and Red Sea basins
            Christianity and Zoroastrianism
            Byzantium, the heir of Rome
            Christian sects
            The decay of Zoroastrianism
            The geographic position of the Peninsula
            Except Yaman, the Arabic Peninsula is unknown
            The two Caravan Routes
            The civilization of Yaman
            Judaism and Christianity in Yaman
                        Quran; 85: 5-9
            Conquest and rule of Yaman by Persia
            Cyrus’ rule of Persia
            Destruction of the Dam of Ma’arib
            The social order of the Peninsula
            Arab paganism and its causes
            Christianity and Judaism
            The spread of paganism
            Idol worship
            Makkah’s place in Arabia

2. Makkah, The Kaabah and The Quraysh

            Geographic position of Makkah
            Ibrahim: May God’s Peace Be Upon Him
                        Quran; 21: 62-63
                        Quran; 6: 76-79
            Ibrahim and Sarah in Egypt
            Who was the Sacrificial Son?
            The Quranic version of The Sacrifice
                        Quran; 37: 102-107
            The historian’s version
            Ibrahim, Ismail and Hagar’s trip to the valley of Makkah
            Discussion of the story
            Ibrahim and Ismail’s construction of the Kaabah
                        Quran; 3: 96-97
                        Quran; 2: 125-127
            Religious development in Arabia
            The Arab Prophets
                        Quran; 11: 53
                        Quran; 17: 15
            Offices of the Kaabah
            Ascendency of the Quraysh
            Qusayy bin Kilab (circa 480 C.E.)
            Construction of permanent residences in Makkah
            The descendents of Qusayy
            The descendents of Abd Manaf
            Hashim (646 C.E)
            Makkan affluence and prosperity
            Abd al-Muttalib (495 C.E.)
            The redigging of Zamzam
            The vow and its fulfilment
            The Year of the Elephant (570 C.E.)
            Abrahah and the Kaabah
                        Quran; 105: 1-5
            The position of Makkah after The Year of the Elephant
            Makkan luxury
            The residences of Makkah
            Abdullah ibn Abd a’-Muttalib

3. Muhammad: From Birth to Marriage

            The marriage of Abdullah and Aminah
            The Birth of Muhammad (570 C.E.)
            Muhammad’s nurses
            Halimah, daughter of Abu Dhu’ayb
            The story of splitting Muhammad’s chest
                        Quran; 94: 1-3
            Muhammad in the desert
            The death of Abd al-Muttalib
            Under Abu Talib’s protection
            The first trip to al-Sham
            The Fijar War
            The Alliance of Fudul
            Muhammad as herdsman
            The life of thought and contemplation
            Muhammad in the employ of Khadijah

4. From Marriage to Prophethood

            Muhammad’s qualities
            Reconstruction of the Kaabah
            Wrecking and rebuilding the Kaabah
            Dissolution of authority in Makkah and its effects
            Dissolution of idol worship
            Muhammad’s sons
            Muhammad’s daughters
            The Arabs’ annual retreat
            Groping after truth
            The true vision
                        Quran; 29: 7-8
            The beginning of revelation (610 C.E)
                        Quran; 96: 1-5
            Muhammad’s fear
            Khadijah, the faithful

5. From The Beginning of Revelation To The Conversion of Umar

            The conversation of Waraqah and Khadijah
                        Quran; 73: 1-7
            Waraqah and Muhammad
            Subsiding of the revelations
                        Quran; 93: 1-11
            The call to truth alone
            Salat (Islamic worship)
            The conversion of Abu Bakr
            The Muslims and Quraysh
            Muhammad’s nearest relatives
                        Quran; 26: 214-216 ; 15-94
                        Quran; 111: 1-3
            Islam and Freedom
                        Quran; 102: 1-8
            The poets of Quraysh
                        Quran; 7: 188
            Muhammad’s attack against the idols
            The logic of history
            Banu Hashim protects Muhammad against Quraysh
            Persecution of the Muslims by Quraysh
            Muslim patience
                        Quran; 79: 24
            The call of Muhammad and modern scientific inquiry
            The essence of Muhammad’s call
                        Quran; 99: 7-8
            The conversion of Hamzah
            Delegation of ‘Utbah ibn Rabi’ah
            Emigration of Abyssinia
            Quraysh’s delegation to the Nexus
            The Muslims’ answer to the ambassador’s claims
                        Quran; 19: 29-33
            Answers of the Negus and the patriarchs
            The Muslim and Abyssinian Christianity
            The spirit in Islam
            The conversion of Umar al-Khattab
6. The Story of Goddesses

            The emigrants return from Abyssinia
                        Quran; 53: 19-20
                        Quran; 17: 73-75
            Incoherence of the story
                        Quran; 22: 52-53
            Refutation of the arguments
            Two revolutions in Abyssinia
            Inverted evidence of the Quranic text
                        Quran; 17: 73-75
                        Quran; 22: 52-53
            Fallacious reasoning of the claim
            The story’s violence to the contextual flow of Surah al-Najm
            The linguistic evidence
            The story contradicts the fact of Muhammad’s candidness
            Attack upon Tawhid

7. The Malevolent Conduct of Quraysh

            The arm of propaganda
            The charge of Magical Eloquence
            Al-Nadr ibn al-Harith
            Jabr, the Christian
                        Quran; 16: 103
            Al-Tufayl ibn ‘Amr al-Dawsi
            Abu Sufyan, Abu Jahal and al-Akhnas
            “He frowned and turned away”
                        Quran; 80: 1-16
            The will to perfection
                        Quran; 49: 14
            Jealousy and competition
                        Quran; 43: 31-32
            Fear of resurrection and the Day of Judgement
                        Quran; 80: 33-42
                        Quran; 70: 8-18
                        Quran; 69: 18-37
                        Quran; 50: 30 ; 4: 56
            Quraysh and Paradise
            The struggle of good and evil
            For the sake of salvation

8. From The Violation Of The Boycott to al-Isra’

            Calling the tribes to Islam during the holy months
            Blockade of the Muslims
            Infallibility of Muhammad in conveying the revelation
                        Quran; 17: 73-75
            Death of Abu Talib and Khadijah
            Increase of Quraysh’s hostility
            Muhammad’s excursion to Taif (628 C.E.)
            Addas, the Christian
                        ‘Jonah, son of Matthew
            Muhammad offers himself to the tribes
            Al Isra’ (621 C.E.)
            Was al Isra’ in body or soul?
                        Quran; 17: 60
            Al Isra’ as given in literature
            Ibn Hisham’s report about al Isra’
                        Quran; 18: 110
                        Quran; 4: 48
            Al Isra’ and the Unity of Being
            Al Isra’ and modern science
            Doubt of Quraysh and apostasy of some Muslims
            Al Isra’ in body

9. The Two Covenants of al-Aqabah

            Muslim weakness after al Isra’
            Muhammad’s fastness
                        Quran; 41: 34
            The first signs of victory in Yathrib
            Al-Aws, al-Khazraj and the Jews
            The Jews’ spiritual influences
            Suwayd ibn al Samit
            Iyas ibn Mu’adh
            The Battle of Buath
            Islamic beginnings in Yathrib
            The First Covenant of Aqabah
            Muhammad thinks of emigration
            The Second Covenant of Aqabah
            Discussion before conclusion of the covenant
            The Covenant
            Quraysh and the Covenant al Aqabah
            Tension between the two parties
            The Muslims’ emigration to Yathrib (HIjrah)
            The Quraysy and the Prophet’s emigration

10. Al Hijrah Or The Prophet’s Emigration

            The command to migrate
            Ali in the Prophet’s bed
            The miracle of the cave
            Some biographers omit the story
                        Quran; 8: 30 ; 9: 40
            The trip to Yathrib
            The story of Suraqah
            The hardships of the road
            Awaiting the Prophet in Yathrib
            The spread of Islam in Yathrib
            Muhammad’s entry into Madinah

11. Beginning Of The Yathrib Period

            Explanation of the city’s welcome
            Building of the Prophet’s mosque
            Muhammad’s aversion to war
                        Quran; 22: 39
                        Quran; 8: 39
            The thinking of Yathrib
            Muslim brotherhood
            The traders
            The harvest
            Muhammad’s friendliness to the Jews
                        The Covenant of Madinah
            New horizons in political life
            The Prophet’s marriage to Aishah
            Adhan or the Call to Prayer
            Brotherhood: Foundation of Islamic Civilization
            Muslim brotherhood
            Muhammad’s kindness to animals
            The brotherhood of justice and mercy
                        Quran; 2: 194
                        Quran; 2: 179
            Muhammad’s power to surmount life
            The Sunnah of Muhammad
                        Quran; 2: 57 ; 28: 77
            Beginning of Jewish fears
            The war of words between Muhammad and the Jews
                        Quran; 112: 1-3
                        Quran; 2: 87-89
            The story of Finhas
                        Quran; 2: 245
                        Quran; 3: 181
                        Quran; 5: 49-50
            Orientation to the Kaabah in prayer
                        Quran; 2: 144
                        Quran; 2: 142-143
            The Christian delegation from Najran
                        Quran; 2: 136
            Congress of the Three Religions
                        Quran; 3: 64
            Withdrawal of the Christian delegation
            Rethinking of the problem of Quraysh and Makkah.

12. The First Raid and Skirmishes
            Muslim policy in Madinah
            The first raids
            Raids led by the Prophet
            The historians’ view of the first raid
            Our view of these raids
            Exposure of Quraysh’s trade to danger
            Al Ansar and offensive attack
            Nature of the Madinese
            Threat to the Jews
            Jewish plots
            Islam and fighting
                        Quran; 2: 190
            Abdullah ibn Jahsh’s expedition
            Sedition greater than murder
                        Quran; 2: 217
            The Quran and fighting
                        Matthew; 10: 34
                        Quran; 2: 256, 190
            War in the cause of God
                        Matthew; 17: 20
            Christianity and fighting
            The saints in Islam and Christianity
            Islam, the natural religion

13. The Great Battle of Badr

            The Muslims mobilize for Badr
            Abu Sufyan’s messenger to Quraysh
            Old enmity of Quraysh and Kinanah
            The path of the Muslim army
            Reconnaissance and Espionage
            Escape of the caravan and Abu Sufyan
                        Quran; 8: 7
            Prospects of Battle
            The Muslims camp at Badr
            Building a booth for the Prophet
            The true faith of the Muslims
            Hamzah kills Ibn Abd al Asad
            Engagement of the two armies
            Muhammad’s prayer and invocation
            Muslim morale
                        Quran; 8: 65-66
            Bilal kills Umayyah bin Khalaf
                        Quran; 8: 12, 17
            The Muslims spare the just
            People of the grave
            Muslim differences concerning booty
            Equal division of the booth
                        Quran; 8: 41
            Execution of two captives
            News of the victory in Madinah
            The captives of Badr
            Abu Bakar and Umar’s views regarding the captives
                        Quran; 21: 67 ; 14: 36
                        Quran; 5: 118
                        Quran; 71: 26 ; 10: 88
                        Quran; 8: 67
            Orientalists’ controversy
            Revolution against idolatry
            The slaughter of St. Bartholomew’s Day
            Warning to Makkah
            Ransom and conversion of Abu al Asi ibn al Rabi
            Quraysh mourns her dead

14. Between Badr and Uhud
            The effect of Badr in Madinah (Jan. 624 c.e.)
            Muslims kill Abu Afk & Asma’
            Murder of Ka’ab ibn al Ashraf
            Jewish fears and aggression
            Blockade of Banu Qaynuqa’
            Political unity in Madinah
            The campaign of al Sawiq
            Threat to the shore route of al Sham
            The tribes’ fear of the Muslims
            The Jews’ fear of Muhammad
            The Iraq route to al Sham’
            Muhammad’s marriage to Hafsah

15. The Campaign of Uhud
            Quraysh’s preparation for revenge
            The Makkan’s march against Madinah
            Al Abbas’s message to the the Prophet
            Varying opinions of Madinah’s defence
            Call to bravery and martyrdom
                        Quran; 56: 25-26
            Discipline and mutual consultation
            The Muslim’s march
            Ordering the ranks of battle
            Quraysh women
            Abu Dujanah and his death-scarf
            The martyrdom of Hamzah
            Muslim victory on the morning of Uhud
            The Muslim’s preoccupation with booty
            The Prophet’s inquiry
            Desperate defence of the Prophet’s person
            The Prophet’s escape
            Mutilation of the Muslim dead
            Muhammad’s mourning of Hamzah
                        Quran; 16: 126-127
            Need for recapturing the lost prestige
            Resumption of fighting on the morrow

16. The Effects of Uhud

            Muhammad’s policy after Uhud
            The campaign of Abu Salamah ibn Abd al Asad
            The campaign of Abdullah ibn Unays
            The Battle of al Raji’ (625 c.e)
            The Battle of Bi’r Ma’unah
            The Jews and Munafiqun of Madinah
            Jewish plots against Muhammad
            Warning to Banu al Nadir
            Instigation to defy the Prophet
            Blockade of Banu al Nadir
                        Quran; 59: 5
                        Quran; 59: 11-13
                        Quran; 59: 22-24
            The Prophet’s secretary
            The would-be encounter at Badr
                        Quran; 3: 168-175
            Campaign of Dhat al Riqa’
            Campaign of Dawmat al Jandal

17. The Prophet’s Wives
            The Zaynab affair and the Orientalists
                        Quran; 33-37
            The Orientalist’s portrait of Zaynab
            Great Men and The Law
            Incoherence of the Orientalists’ Account
            As husband of Khadijah
            Muhammad’s marriage to Sawdah
            Historical analysis and its results
                        Quran; 4: 3
                        Quran; 4: 129
            The story of Zaynab, daughter of Jahsh
                        Quran; 49: 13
                        Quran; 33: 36
            Adoption in Islam
                        Quran; 33: 4
                        Quran; 33: 37
            Return to the Orientalists’ Views

18. The Campaigns of al Khandaq and Banu Qurayzah

            Muhammad’s caution and Arab instinct
            Jewish enmity
            Jewish preference of paganism in Islam
                        Quran; 4: 51-52
                        The Jews in Arabia by Dr. Israel Wolfenson
            The Jews rallying of the Arab tribes
            The Muslim’s panic
            Quraysh in front of the dry moat
            Jewish fear of Makkan withdrawal
            The Prophet’s warning to Banu Qurayzah
            Morale of the Makkans and their allies
                        Quran; 33: 10-13
            Engagement of the forces
            Dividing the enemies against themselves
            The anger of Nature
            The campaign against Banu Qurayzah
            Arbitration of Sa’id ibn Mu’adh
            Huyayy’s responsibility for the tragedy
            The Spoils of War

19. From The Two Campaigns to The Treaty of Hudaybiah
            Organization of the Arab community
                        Quran; 5: 3
            Relations between men and women
            Arab eroticism
            Woman in other civilizations
                        John; 8: 7
            Muhammad and social reconstruction
            Islam forbids fornication
                        Quran; 33: 58-62
                        Quran; 24: 30-31
            The Prophet’s home and his wives
                        Quran; 33: 53
                        Quran; 33: 32-33
            Social foundations of Muslim brotherhood
            The campaign of Banu Lihyan
            The campaign of Dhu Qarad
            The campaign of Banu al Mustaliq
            The plot of Abdullah ibn Ubayy
            Ibn Ubayy’s resentment of the Prophet
                        Quran; 63: 7-8
            Aishah at the campaign of Banu al Mustaliq
            Aishah’s Illness
            The gossip and Aishah
            The revolt of Aishah
            Revelation of Aishah’s innocence
                        Quran; 24: 11 ; 16-17
                        Quran; 24: 4

20. The Treaty of Hudaybiyah

            Proscription of the sanctuary to Muslim entry
                        Quran; 2: 217
                        Quran; 8: 34-36
            Muslim yearning for Makkah
            The Arabs and the Ka’bah
            The Muslims and the Ka’bah
            Muhammad’s proclamation concerning pilgrimage
            Quraysh and Muslim pilgrimage
            Muhammad’s caution to safeguard the peace
            Quraysh’s delegates to the Muslims
            The delegation of Urwah ibn Mas’ud al-Thaqafi
            Muhammad’s delegation to Quraysh
            The Covenant of al Ridwan
                        Quran; 48: 18
            The Quraysh’s response
            Conclusion of the treaty (March 628 c.e)
            Promulgation of the treaty
            The Treaty of Hudaybiyah:  A Genuine Victory
                        Quran; 48: 1-30
            The story of Abu Basir
            Muslim women emigrants

21. The Campaign of Khaybar and Missions to Kings
            Crystallization of the Islamic call
            The proscription of alcohol
                        Quran; 2: 219
                        Quran; 4: 43
                        Quran; 5: 90-91 ; 93
            The Persian and Byzantine Empires
            The Prophet’s delegates
            Persia and Byzantium
            Elimination of Jewish influence in Arabia
                        Quran; 48: 15
            The march against Khaybar
            Jewish reaction
            The two armies
            The Muslim’s blockade
            Jewish despair and collapse
            Muhammad’s marriage to Safiyyah
            Delegation to Heraclius
            Delegation to Chosroes
            Delegation to Archbishop of Egypt
            Delegation to Abyssinia
            Explanation to the Kings’ replies
            Muslim return from Abyssinia

22. The Umrah or Lesser Pilgrimage

            The Muslims’ March to Makkah
            The Quraysh evacuate the city
            Circumambulation of the Sacred House
            The Muslims’ sojourn in Makkah
            Muhammad’s marriage to Maymunah
            Conversion of Khalid ibn al Walid and others

23. The Campaign of Mu’tah

            Skirmishes before the campaign
            Causes of the campaign        
            Byzantine mobilization
            Fall of the martyrs
            Ibn al Walid’s strategy
            The campaign of Dhat al Salasil

24. The Conquest of Makkah
            Effects of the previous campaign
            Spread of Islam in the north
            Quraysh’s violation of her treaty
            Quraysh’s fears
            The failure of Abu Sufyan’s effort
            Muslim preparations for war
                        Quran; 60: 1
            The Muslims’ March on Makkah
            Abu Sufyan’s audience with the Prophet
            The historians’ estimate of these reports
            The march on Makkah continued
            Deployment of the Muslim forces
            The Muslims enter Makkah
                        Quran; 96: 1-5
                        Quran; 49: 13
            The Prophet’s General Amnesty
            Cleansing of the Ka’bah and its images
                        Quran; 17: 81
            Al Ansar fears and the Prophet’s reassurance
            Pardon extended to the convicts
            Reconsecration of Makkah: The City As Inviolate
            Ibn al Walid and the tribe of Jadhimah

25. Campaign of Hunayn and al Taif

            Malik ibn Awf march against the Muslims
            The Muslims march to Hunayn
            Muslim defeat
            Muhammad’s resoluteness and bravery
            Al Abbas’ call for regrouping
            Muslim counterattack and victory
            The Muslims’ pursuit of their enemies
                        Quran; 9: 25-28
            The price of victory
            The siege of al Taif
            Bombardment of al Taif by catapult
            Destruction of al Taif’s orchards
            Hawazin captives liberated and returned to their tribe
            The people’s fear of losing their booty
            Al Ansar and the reconciliatory gratuities

26. Ibrahim and The Wives of The Prophet

            Effect of the conquest of Makkah
            Conversion of Ka’b ibn Zuhayr
            Conversion of Zayd al Khayl and others
            Muhammad’s bereavement
            The birth of Ibrahim, Muhammad’s son
            Jealousy of the Prophet’s wives
                        Quran; 30: 28-29
            The Wives Plotting
            Their rebellion
            The Prophet’s separation from his wives
                        Quran; 30: 1-5
            The judgement of critical historiography
            Refutation of the Orientalists’ claim

27. Campaign of Tabuk and The Death of Ibrahim
            Institution of Zakat and Kharaj
                        Sidanah, Rifadah and Siqayah
            The threat of Byzantine invasion and Muslim reaction
            The Muslim’s response to Muhammad’s call to arms
            Al Munafiqun
                        Quran; 9: 81-82
                        Quran; 9: 49
            Recruitment of Jaysh al Usrah
            The Muslims’ March
            Encampment at al Hijr
            Byzantine withdrawal; Covenants of peace with the north
            Ibn al Walid’s campaign against Dumah
            The Muslims’ return
            The Recalcitrants
                        Quran; 9: 117-118
            Severe threat of the Munafiqun
            The Prophet’s last campaign
            Illness and death of Ibrahim

28. The Year of Deputations and Abu Bakar’s Leadership of The Pilgrimage

            The effects of the Campaign of Tabuk
            Conversion of Urwah ibn Mas’ud and his murder
            Thaqif’s delegation to the Prophet
            Destruction of the idol of Lat
            Abu Bakar leads the pilgrimage
                        Quran; 9: 1-36
            The Moral Foundations of the Islamic State
            The Principle of Freedom in Western Civilization
            The West’s War Against Communism
            The West’s War Against Nudism
            Legislation may restrict freedom
            Social aspect of Associationism
            Legitimacy of the war against Associationism
            Amir ibn al Tufayl
            The other deputations

29. The Farewell Pilgrimage
            Islam’s distinction between paganism and the Religions of the Book
                        Quran; 9: 29 ; 34: 35
                        Quran; 5: 82
                        Quran; 3: 59-64
                        Quran; 5: 73-75
                        Quran; 5: 11
                        Quran; 5: 82
            More deputations to the Prophet
            Arab unity under the banner of Islam
            Conversion of Arab Christians to Islam
            The Prophet prepares for Pilgrimage
            The Muslims march for Pilgrimage
            Desacralization after the Umrah or Lesser Pilgrimage
            Ali’s return from Yaman
            Performance of the Pilgrimage Ritual
            The Prophet’s Last Sermon
                        Quran; 5: 4

30. The Prophet’s Sickness and Death

            Effects of the Farewell Pilgrimage
            The Prophetic Pretenders
            The Prophet’s concern for the Northern Front
            The Prophet’s counsel to Usamah
            The Prophet’s Illness
            The Prophet’s visit to the cemetery
            Muhammad’s congenial mood
            Attacks of fever
            Sortie to the mosque
            The Prophet’s whisper to Fatimah
            The Prophet’s wish to write a testament
            Muslim joy at the Prophet’s apparent recovery
            The interlude of wakefulness before death
            “Rather, God on High and Paradise’

31. The Prophet’s Burial

            Muslim shock at the news of death
            Umar belies the news
            Enter Abu Bakar
            Muhammad is truly dead
                        Quran; 3: 144
            Further thoughts on Muhammad’s death
            At Banu Sa’idah’s court
                        Quran; 9: 100
            Nomination of Abu Bakar to the Caliphate
            Abu Bakar’s election
            Inaugural speech of the First “Rashidun” Caliph
            The quest for a burial site
            Preparing the body for burial
            The funeral prayer
            A grave moment of history
            Confusion of the Men of Little Faith
            The Prophet’s burial
            Aishah and the Grave Room
            Expediting Usamah’s army on its march
            Prophets leave no inheritance
            Muhammad’s great spiritual legacy

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